Invasion of the Tuileries

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

After Louis XVI failed attempt of escaping revolutionary France, the people felt as though Louis was a traitor to the country rather then a monarch. Louis believed the people of France would welcome him back, but quiet the opposite happened when he returned to Paris. The people stood in disgust as the carriage rolled through Paris to the Tuileries palace. On the 20th of June 1792, 8000 working class people and radicals marched to the legislative assembly and the on to the Tuileries palace, this major event was organized by the Cordeliers club. Upon their arrival at the Tuileries palace the crowd demanded that Louis recall his veto and wear a red revolutionary bonnet and toast to the nation. The crowd’s demands were calmly rejected by Louis, the angriness of the crowd defused at the king’s calmness and they soon dispersed.

Nature Of The Event

In the early hours of the morning of 10th of August 1792 a crowd of 20,000 people including 400 volunteers from Marseilles and National guards from the rest of France converged on the Tuileries palace.
Unfortunately for King Louis his only defence was 900 Mercenary Swiss guards, 700 royalist volunteers and 2000 national guards whose loyalty to the king was doubtful.
Louis was greatly alarmed by the mass number of people and walked with his family to the nearby National Assembly to seek refuge and protection, equally as scared as Louis the Assembly unwillingly admitted him.

Upon their arrival at the palace the crowd (20,000 strong) asked the Swiss Guard (900 Strong) to surrender, the Swiss Guard refused and opened fire on the crowd they were soon slaughtered. The crowd decapitated some of the Swiss Guard and impaled their heads on pikes; others were thrown from the palace windows whilst dying and some were taken away for further desecration. Of the 900 Swiss Guard 500 were murdered in cold blood, 60 were escorted as prisoners to Hotel De Ville but were later massacred, others died in prison and only 100 are believed to have survived.

Significance To The Revolution

The significance of the attack on the Tuileries was the arrival of the crowd at the national assembly where they demanded the deposition of the King and the institution of the national Convention. The assembly complied with the crowd’s demands and the king was deposed and the National Convention was formed. The constitutional monarchy was over and the middle-class revolution had made way for the popular movement.

Response Of The Revolutionary Government

The revolutionary government now became the National convention, it also radicalised its opinion of leaders and the people of the revolution.
The Paris commune also instigated the September massacres was where the remaining Swiss Guard were killed.

Michael Caine